Workshop W5. Silvo-arable
and silvo-pastoral systems
Chair: Bruno Rapidel, CIRAD
Co-chair: Marie Gosme, INRA
This On-Farm Workshop was organized by the joint Research Unit on
Functioning and management of Tropical and Mediterranean
cropping systems (UMR SYSTEM) affiliated
to CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro and IAM.M.
The visit took place at the Agroforestry experiment, Restinclières
Farm Estate belonging to the Hérault General Council (Prades
le Lez, 11 km North of Montpellier). It was attended by 40 participants
from 11 countries under a shining sun.
morning session was dedicated to the visit of the 20 years old agroforestry
experiment. It focused on the technical management of silvoarable
systems, the diversification of agroforestry systems (with its successes
and failures, whose exploration is essential in this novel system),
on below ground interaction -with the visit of a 4-m deep pit equipped
with rhizotrons and mini-rhizotrons, as well as above ground interactions,
leading to stimulating discussions on light interception.
The afternoon indoor session, focused on agroforestry systems, completed
well the morning visit, by including presentations on pests and
diseases, an essential part of agroforestry systems, particularly
in the tropics. Of course, the theme of the congress - farming system
design, was also broached.
The plot, farm and landscape scales were encompassed, showing contrasting
results. Although research results are used in agroforestry system
design initiatives, both in temperate and tropical regions, more
research on these systems is certainly required, as unexpected effects
of agroforestry practices were occasionnally observed. The workshop
was concluded by a visit of an experimental agroforestry vineyard.
8.15: Departure from Montpelllier (Corum)
9.00: Arrival on SICA parking lot and entrance to the Estate walking
❶ (we leave the bus for the whole day – don't forget
9.15: General presentation of the estate ❷
9.30-11.00: Outdoor session (4 groups
rotate between 4 workshops): ❸
Technical management of silvoarable
systems (speaker: Delphine Mézière, INRA)
What technical management adaptations are required when growing
crops and trees within the same field? After a presentation of the
current cropping practices and the remaining issues to achieve more
sustainability, we will exchange on the different options for cropping
system improvement and the research challenges in terms of cropping
Diversification of agroforestry systems
(speaker: Lydie Dufour, INRA)
Most of the global energy needs are currently met by fossil fuels,
but the depletion of fossil fuels means that alternative sources
of energy are needed. Agroforestry systems producing biomass for
energy production as well as timber wood and/or food production
allow optimizing the land use. We will present a field with Short
Rotation Coppices associated with timber walnut trees and an experiment
of pollarding adult trees in a cereal-based agroforestry field.
Below-ground interactions (speaker:
Marie Gosme, INRA)
Agroforestry systems combining winter crops and deep rooted trees
(e.g. walnut) are very efficient in terms of food and timber production.
This efficiency is in part due to the unusual architecture of tree
roots in agroforestry, compared to forest trees, which allows a
vertical segregation between crop roots and tree roots and increases
the complementarity between the trees and crops for below-ground
resources. We will discuss the mechanisms related to root interactions
between trees and crops. Participants are welcome to share their
experience in monitoring below-ground interactions between plants.
Above-ground interactions (speaker:
Christian Dupraz, INRA)
The design of agroforestry systems must take into consideration
light competition between trees and crops. Tree row orientation,
tree row spacing, tree pruning, tree phenology will impact light
competition. A process- based model was used to predict best management
practices and showed that we are far from the optimum in this experiment.
Trees will also be part of an adaptation strategy of the crops to
climate change, and shade is part of that story. But not only shade…
Discussion with farmers and advisors (Alain and Henri Breton (arable
crops), Denis Florès (vegetables), David de Montfumat (livestock),
Clélia Saubion and/or Fabien Liagre (advisors)
11.15: Cold drinks in the forest control ❹
with farmers and advisors
(Alain and Henri Breton (arable crops), Denis Florès (vegetables),
David de Montfumat (livestock), Clélia Saubion and/or Fabien
Liagre (advisors) -❺
1.00-2.00: Outdoors lunch near the castle (if the weather permits)
2.00-2.30: Coffee in the downstairs room in the castle ❼
2.30-4.30: Indoor session❽
studies of the relationships between cropping structure and pest
and disease regulation services."
Cynthia Gidoin, INRA, France
services provided by coffee agroecosystems across a range of topo-climatic
conditions and management strategies."
Rolando Cerda, CATIE, Costa-Rica
and design of multispecies cropping systems with perennials: are
current methods applicable?"
Rapidel, CIRAD, Costa-Rica
the determinants and links between ecosystem services in coffee-based
agroforestry systems to offer pathways of agroecological intensification:
insights from various farmers' practices in a small agricultural
region in Central North Nicaragua."
Martin Notaro, CIRAD, France
multifunctionality in the mango orchards for export in Senegal?"
De Bon, CIRAD, France
Spatial distribution and Mapping of Cocoa Swollen Shoot Disease
for Effective rehabilitation strategies in infected areas."
Zokou Franck Oro, University of Peleforo Gon Coulibaly, Ivory Coast
analysis of a temperate forest garden: a contribution to complex
Pasquier, Association Française d'Agroforesterie,
tree roots deep in agroforestry systems: combining moderate water
stress and water competition at plantation."
Forey, INRA, France
agro-ecologic paradigm for little farming exploitations to obtain
Valet, Passerelles, France
General discussion and break
4.30-5.15: Visit of the grapevine plots and informal discussions
5.30-6.15: bus departure from the castle back to Montpellier (Corum)